Numerical and statistical evidence for long-range ducted gravity wave propagation over Halley, Antarctica

first_imgAbundant short‒period, small‒scale gravity waves have been identified in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Halley, Antarctica, via ground‒based airglow image data. Although many are observed as freely propagating at the heights of the airglow layers, new results under modeled conditions reveal that a significant fraction of these waves may be subject to reflections at altitudes above and below. The waves may at times be trapped within broad thermal ducts, spanning from the tropopause or stratopause to the base of the thermosphere (∼140 km), which may facilitate long‒range propagation (∼1000s of km) under favorable wind conditions.last_img read more

USS Winston S. Churchill Crew Displays MIO Tactics with Montenegrin Military

first_img View post tag: Displays View post tag: military View post tag: Naval View post tag: Montenegrin View post tag: crew View post tag: Churchill View post tag: USS Back to overview,Home naval-today USS Winston S. Churchill Crew Displays MIO Tactics with Montenegrin Military View post tag: Tactics View post tag: MIOcenter_img Training & Education Visit, board, search and seizure (VBSS) team members of guided-missile destroyer USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG 81) displayed maritime interdiction tactics with the Montenegrin military during a coalition training exercise July 9.The VBSS team and the maritime squadron of Montenegro’s special forces each performed a simulated maritime interdiction operation (MIO) in order to compare strategies and further cooperation between the two allied militaries.“Every military has different ways of solving problems. To observe a diversity of well-trained boarding teams interjects new ideas and keeps what you’re doing fresh,” said Lt. j.g. Edward R. Kellum, lead boarding officer of the Churchill team. “To see what the Montenegrin Navy is capable of and analyze the differences only adds another layer of competency to my team’s ability to perform their mission.”In each event, VBSS teams boarded vessels belonging to their respective countries, the Churchill for the U.S. Sailors and a salvage tug for the Montenegrin special forces. Both teams executed boarding techniques to include crew members and sweeping the ship for contraband. Military leaders from Montenegro observed both sets of boardings.“This was an excellent opportunity for us to see and compare our levels of tactics and equipment,” said Montenegro navy Cmdr. Darko Vukovic, deputy chief of naval operations for Montenegro.While the Montenegrin navy does not have VBSS teams, they utilize the maritime squadron special forces personnel to perform anti-piracy operations and combat smuggling and terrorism.“It’s a good feeling to get a direct comparison with a special forces squadron,” said Gunner’s Mate 3rd Class (SW) Devon Dusseault, a Churchill VBSS team member. “It’s great to see what they’re capable of and integrate those tactics into our own.The Montenegrin navy consists of 341 personnel, according Vukovic. He said he believes close training like this will pay even great dividends for Montenegro in the future.Winston S. Churchill is on a regularly scheduled deployment in support of Maritime Security Operations (MSO) and theater Security Cooperation (TSC) efforts in the U.S. 5th and 6th Fleet areas of responsibility. Hue City is deployed as part of Eisenhower Carrier Strike Group (CSG), which includes CSG 8, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69), guided- missile destroyers USS Farragut (DDG 99), USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG 81), and USS Jason Dunham (DDG 109), the seven squadrons of Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 7, and Destroyer Squadron 28.[mappress]Naval Today Staff, July 12, 2012; Image: U.S.Navy View post tag: Navy View post tag: News by topic USS Winston S. Churchill Crew Displays MIO Tactics with Montenegrin Military July 12, 2012 View post tag: Winston Share this articlelast_img read more

USS John C. Stennis Leaves Dry Dock

first_imgBack to overview,Home naval-today USS John C. Stennis Leaves Dry Dock The Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74) departed the dry dock at Puget Sound Naval Shipyards (PSNS) and Intermediate Maintenance Facility (IMF), April 25. Industry news View post tag: Dock USS John C. Stennis Leaves Dry Dock View post tag: USS View post tag: Navy View post tag: C. View post tag: Naval View post tag: Dry The event marked the conclusion of the nine-month dry dock portion of Stennis’ Docking Planned Incremental Availability (DPIA) maintenance period.“This milestone is a big win, not just for the Stennis and PSNS and IMF team, but also for the Navy,” said Stennis’ Commanding Officer, Capt. Michael Wettlaufer. “I am exceptionally proud of our team’s accomplishments in achieving this major milestone early and keeping Stennis on track to return to the fleet as scheduled.”To date, Stennis, PSNS and IMF personnel completed more than 11,000 critical repair jobs including the restoration of Stennis’ multi-ton propellers, shafts and rudders, as well as refurbishing all four aircraft catapults.Stennis also began installing the Consolidated Afloat Network Enterprise Services communications platform and is in the process of upgrading the ship’s Phalanx Close-in Weapons Systems to the Block 1B baseline 2 variant, designed to improve the ship’s defense against close-range threats, including surface and air targets.“A tremendous amount of work has been accomplished by the entire project team,” said PSNS and IMF employee John Simpson, Stennis’ project engineer planning manager, from Spokane, Wash. “It took teamwork by the ship, shipyard and alteration-installation teams working to make this event happen.”Millions of gallons of water entered the dry dock Aug. 23 as Stennis, PSNS and IMF personnel conducted safety and water integrity inspections throughout the ship. Once the dry dock was fully flooded, the caisson, a barrier separating the dry dock from the bay, was removed and Stennis, with the assistance of several tugboats, was safely transited to an adjacent pier where the ship will continue its DPIA.“Flooding and exiting the dry dock takes a large orchestrated effort between the ship’s crew, docking officers and other support personnel,” said PSNS and IMF’s engineering duty officer, Lt. Rebecca Wright, from Colorado Springs, Colorado.Stennis is scheduled to complete its DPIA after conducting sea trials in the fall.[mappress]Press Release, April 28, 2014; Image: Navy View post tag: News by topic View post tag: Stennis View post tag: Leaves April 28, 2014 View post tag: John Share this articlelast_img read more

State Lawmaker Looks To Ease Voter Accessibility

first_imgChannel 44 News: State Lawmaker Looks To Ease Voter AccessibilityOCTOBER 20TH, 2017 Jeff Goldberg JEFF GOLDBERG EVANSVILLE, INDIANA The interim study committee on elections approved their final report on Wednesday. Lawmakers made their final recommendation: look into clearing the voter rolls.One lawmaker is now speaking out about the matter. Democrat Ryan Hatfield serves on the committee, but he feels like the committee didn’t go far enough. One thing left off of the final report was easing absentee voting laws. As it stands right now, Hatfield says Indiana is one of the few states that still requires an excuse when mailing in an absentee ballot.FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailShare last_img read more

OCBP Then and Now: Bud McKinley Scholarship

first_imgOcean City Beach Patrol’s Bud McKinleyA weekly feature from Ocean City Beach Patrol historian Fred Miller:“O. C. Beach Patrol loses one of its most respected members, Bud McKinley” was the front page headline of the May 17, 2001 Ocean City Sentinel.The article began, “Alfred ‘Bud’ McKinley, Ocean City’s and New Jersey’s top lifeguard, died of a heart attack Friday, May 11 after working out at Raritan Valley Community College, where he was a professor of history and communication. He was 61 years old.”The article continued reporting on how the local lifeguards were coping with the loss of their friend. It ended asking for donations to the Ocean City Rowing and Athletic Association to establish a scholarship in his name.On Monday evening, June 2, in the Ocean City High School’s Bill and Nancy Hughes Performing Arts Center, OCRAA director Fred Miller presented the 13th annual Dr. Alfred “Bud” McKinley Scholarship. A total of $2,000 was presented to Ocean City Beach Patrol lifeguard Frank Brady, lifeguard Ed Keenan III, and Rachel Young.last_img read more

LCD Soundsystem Covers Prince And David Bowie At Coachella [Watch]

first_imgA video posted by The World Famous KROQ (@kroq) on Apr 23, 2016 at 12:23am PDT Last night, LCD Soundsystem graced Coachella’s second weekend with a dedicated set of dance music. In honor of two of lost legends, the band paid tribute to David Bowie with a cover of “Heroes,” as they did the previous weekend, and honored Prince with a popping performance of “Controversy.”Before the band took the stage, they displayed video from Prince’s legendary 2008 performance, where he covered Radiohead’s “Creep.” You can watch that here.Here is some fan-shot video from the Prince tribute, courtesy of Oscar Scenestar:Here’s another short clip with higher quality audio, thanks to rob mitchell:As well as a clip from Instagram: LCD Soundsystem @ Coachella, April 22, 2016 Setlist:Us v ThemDaft Punk Is Playing at My HouseI Can ChangeYou Wanted a HitControversy (Prince cover)TribulationsMovementYeahSomeone Great45:33 Part FourLosing My EdgeNew York, I Love You But You’re Bringing Me DownDance Yrself Clean“Heroes” (David Bowie cover)All My Friends[Setlist via Brooklyn Vegan, Photo via @nat.somphoto]last_img read more

The Disco Biscuits Announce Memorial Day Weekend In Portland

first_imgThe Disco Biscuits have just announced two nights in Portland Maine over Memorial Day Weekend. The Philly-based electronic jam pioneers will bring their world to the State Pier on Friday, May 26 and Saturday the 27th.Tickets go on sale to the public this Friday, April 7 at 12 ET. Early access starts tomorrow at noon through BiscoTix Fanclub. More information can be found here.[photo by Dave Vann]last_img

Science and citizenship

first_imgErratum: Angela DePace, associate professor of systems biology at Harvard Medical School and founder of the Scientific Citizenship Initiative, was incorrectly identified in the Sept. 16 Daily Gazette newsletter. We regret the error.As a science-minded and politically active youth growing up in central Oklahoma, Kayla Davis was fascinated with both science and policy. When Oklahoma made record budget cuts to education in 2016, however, her fascination bloomed into a desire to work at the intersection of these two worlds.“The state’s decision to sacrifice education spending, especially spending that would help enrich the learning experience of students interested in STEM fields, was heartbreaking to me,” said Davis, now a seventh-year graduate student in Harvard’s Biological and Biomedical Sciences program in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS).So, while studying mitochondrial regulation in the lab of Harvard Medical School (HMS) neuroscientist Tom Schwarz, Davis also actively explored science policy. She cofounded the Oklahoma Science Project — an online resource to support science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in her home state — and played a leadership role in the Harvard GSAS Science Policy Group.And when the opportunity arose to spend a summer working alongside legislators in the Massachusetts State House, tackling equitable COVID-19 testing and other health care concerns, it was a no-brainer, Davis said.Over the course of 10 weeks this summer, Davis and three other HMS graduate students spent their time outside of the lab working at the Massachusetts State House as fellows in the Scientific Citizenship Initiative (SCI) at HMS.Representing diverse backgrounds, career goals, and areas of expertise, the 2020 SCI fellows carried out research, drafted communications and participated in discussions on a broad range of policy issues, including pandemic response, police reform, housing equity, climate change, and more.“Scientists and policymakers have a lot to learn from each other,” said Angela DePace, associate professor of systems biology at HMS and founder of SCI. “We hope that building and sustaining these relationships will inspire scientists to take on new types of socially impactful work, including new research questions.”This is precisely the mission propelling SCI, which was established in 2018 to narrow the gap between scientists and society by offering training and opportunities for civic engagement not typically found in STEM education. SCI programs include coursework, mentoring, networking and the Massachusetts State House fellowship — a part-time program that gives students practical experience working in policy alongside their studies and lab work.As part of the fellowship, SCI provides stipends and helps place students into the offices of state legislators. To help the fellows make the most of their time, SCI offers training on science policy and State House functions, as well as mentorship from Daniel Pomeroy, executive director of SCI, and Carl Sciortino, executive vice president of external relations at Fenway Health.“We believe that giving students and working scientists the skills and opportunities they need to create meaningful connections in the world will not only improve society, but also give scientists a fuller picture of themselves as citizens who are essential to a functioning democracy,” DePace said.,Wake-up callIn recent months, communities of every size and composition around the world have confronted generational challenges, highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as inequities and social justice. There are no simple solutions to these complex crises, which require civic engagement and cooperation at every level of society to be successfully and sustainably overcome.The participation of scientists in this discourse is no exception, especially since the need for data and evidence-based input on policy has arguably never been more acute.“COVID-19 has highlighted the fact that scientific evidence is critical to solve major societal challenges, but also that it alone isn’t enough,” DePace said. “Implementing solutions in the real world shows that thoughtful communication and civic engagement are required to build public trust in science, especially when research is moving quickly.”Due to the pandemic, this year’s SCI fellows faced unique challenges, including having to carry out their work remotely due to social distancing. However, they also had unique opportunities.Davis spent her summer as a fellow working with Rep. Natalie Higgins of Leominster. Tasked with researching equitable COVID-19 testing, Davis spent much of her time tracking and following pieces of legislation and writing memos, summaries and talking points.She worked closely with the representative and this experience revealed to her how influential the voice of scientists can be in policy — a fact highlighted when Higgins quoted her in a session of the progressive caucus, a group of dozens of legislators working to promote social, economic and environmental justice.“It was a moment that made me very aware that everything I say is being taken very seriously, which is not always the case as a graduate student in academia,” Davis said. “I was in the position where I was the science expert in the room, and it was kind of a wake-up call. Legislators will act on things because we said them.”Embracing certaintyUnsurprisingly, COVID-19 policy drew the attention of many of the fellows, especially Colette Matysiak, a fifth-year student in the Harvard Program in Virology. As a member of the lab of HMS immunologist Ulrich von Andrian, Matysiak’s research focuses on the biology of viral respiratory tract infections and, in recent months, directly on aspects of COVID-19.Armed with a master of public health degree earned prior to joining HMS, Matysiak had the opportunity to immediately contribute to the team of Sen. Will Brownsberger, president pro tempore of the Massachusetts Senate and a member of the Senate’s working group on COVID-19.Despite her expertise in virology and global health, there was a significant learning curve.“In your Ph.D. you have months or even years to learn and understand a situation,” Matysiak said. “It was a completely different experience working in the senator’s office, where he needed information that day or week. Figuring out how to get high quality information rapidly takes a lot of skill, which I’m still developing.”As a member of Brownsberger’s team focused on COVID-19 testing, Matysiak had to quickly build a deep understanding of testing across the state, interviewing experts, synthesizing her research and reporting her findings directly to the senator and his team. It was this latter task that was one of the most challenging, according to Matysiak.In academic science, communications tend to be couched because science is iterative and understanding can change as new evidence emerges. However, Matysiak found that communicating a higher degree of certainty was needed to inform policy decisions.“As a scientist, my instinct is never to say something like ‘We should definitely do X,’” Matysiak said. “But if I didn’t present my thoughts and ideas with a level of certainty, then legislators were unlikely to act on the information I presented, because if I was uncertain, then they were definitely uncertain.”“Trying to communicate certainty can be hard, but I think it’s important for scientists who want to engage in policy,” she added.Narrowing gapsWhile Matysiak worked directly on an area in which she had existing expertise, she was also exposed to a wide variety of areas of interest to the senator, including police reform, a topic very different from what she encounters normally as a bench scientist.Such firsthand exposures to the legislative process — like how policymakers respond to current events, or the different stakeholders needed to move legislation forward — were new experiences for the fellows, as was practice with the skills involved in policymaking.SCI Fellow Jasmin Joseph-Chazan, first-year graduate student in the Harvard Program in Immunology, recently graduated from MIT with a degree in biological engineering.“How science affects people is something I’ve thought about for a long time, and policy to me is similar to engineering in making sure that we’re doing right by people,” Joseph-Chazan said. “But I didn’t know how to bridge this gap in my own learning.”Upon entering the program, Joseph-Chazan dove into policy on the team of Rep. Jack Patrick Lewis of Framingham, with a focus on the impact of COVID-19 on health insurance enrollment after loss of employment.She also had the opportunity to explore other topics important to Rep. Lewis, including education, LGBTQ rights, immigration and more, which allowed her to attend a variety of meetings and to engage with legislators herself.Joseph-Chazan spent time in her fellowship, for example, working with members of the state’s Medicare-for-All caucus, helping to provide research data and connecting the group with experts. She also directly contributed to Rep. Lewis’ communications, writing press releases and even drafting a letter to the speaker of the house.“Having done the fellowship, I think I can go into my Ph.D. with a different perspective,” she continued. “I want to make sure that whatever I am doing in the lab is not only important for the progression of science but for the progression of our communities.”While essentially every facet of working in the State House was a new experience for Joseph-Chazan and the other fellows, they were supported throughout the program by SCI staff.Pomeroy, with a Ph.D. in physics and extensive experience working in science policy, along with Sciortino, who served for a decade as a Massachusetts state representative, were invaluable resources for the fellows as they navigated the complex work of public policy.“STEM training rarely, if ever, provides students with an understanding of how to engage with public policymakers. Yet, science is an essential input to the development of policies that address some of our most difficult societal challenges,” Pomeroy said.“This fellowship program is not only about improving public policy. We also want to provide career development experience for students,” he continued. “Science students and postdocs go on to do all kinds of meaningful and important work in society, and only a fraction of them will do that work in academia. Real world experiences like these allow students to gain skills that will be useful whether they pursue a career in science research, policy or anywhere else.”Leadership and serviceWhile the fellowship has now ended, their time in the State House and the mentoring and resources they received through SCI will be lasting experiences, the fellows said. Some aim to engage in policy in the future as scientists, and others, such as Davis, are actively exploring career options in science policy.However, for one member of the cohort, the work he initiated in the State House still continues.Slater Sharp, a third-year student in the Harvard Program in Neuroscience in the lab of HMS neurobiologist Sandeep Robert Datta, studies how mice can safely learn about new foods in their environment by smelling other mice.With his longstanding interest in politics and public service, the SCI fellowship presented a welcome opportunity to explore policy from the perspective of a scientist at a time when the world seemed to be facing one crisis after another, Sharp said.Working with Dylan Fernandes, Massachusetts state representative for Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket, Sharp had an opportunity to contribute to an area far removed from neuroscience: ocean acidification and climate change.“We don’t know what resources are needed and how we can begin to prepare for this imminent environmental catastrophe,” Sharp said.Rep. Fernandes co-leads a commission to study the impact of ocean acidification on the state, but with the legislature’s energy directed toward COVID-19 and elsewhere, efforts to study and address long-term environmental threats have received less attention in recent months, Sharp said.“This gave me the chance to step into a leadership role where I might have otherwise not been able to,” he said.Serving as a point of contact for the commission, Sharp brought together experts and leaders from Massachusetts coastal regions for discussions on the state’s capacity for monitoring and responding to ocean acidification. This experience, he said, had many overlaps with his scientific training, such as synthesizing data, ideas and opinions from disparate fields and communicating evidence-based conclusions to others.His goal is to help compile resources and data and draft a final report for the commission, so that the legislators can create actionable policy proposals by January, the beginning of the new legislative cycle. The report will then serve as foundational evidence to bolster support for the proposed policies.While his 10-week fellowship has ended, Sharp continues to work with the commission to finalize the report and help policymakers craft new legislation.“I think we’ve all been a little bit shocked in the last few years at how far public opinion can be removed from expert opinion, especially on scientific topics,” he said. “That’s probably the fault of scientists a little bit, because we haven’t engaged with the community as directly and effectively as we should have.“I think there should be more scientists working on policy and more politicians trained in science,” Sharp said. “So, I offered to stay on the project.”This article originally appeared on the Harvard Medical School site.last_img read more

‘A more qualified pool than ever before’

first_imgTags: Admissions, class of 2018, First Year of Studies, Office of Undergraduate Admissions A record number of high-achieving applicants fought for admission to the University this year, illustrating Notre Dame’s increasing selectivity and marking this particular class as “a more qualified pool than ever before,” Don Bishop, associate vice president for undergraduate enrollment, said. Keri O’Mara | The Observer “We had 17,897 [applications], and what was more interesting than just that number was there was about a 15 percent increase in the highest ability applicants, and by highest ability they would rate in the top two percent of the nation in accomplishment by national testing standards, by class performance,” Bishop said.Bob Mundy, director of admissions, said the number of highly qualified applicants rose independently of the total number of applications.“That increase in the applicant pool was only about one and a half percent,” Mundy said. “So it’s a disproportionate jump.”Bishop said the Office of Undergraduate Admissions strives to fulfill a freshmen enrollment goal of 1,985 to 2,000 freshmen. He said the dramatic increase in highly qualified applicants allows for the Office of Admissions’ to have increasing selectivity in choosing among the nation’s brightest high school seniors.“We were about 20 percent more selective this year,” Bishop said. “… We had 6,300 applicants out of that 17,897 … that were in the top one percent in the nation in either their high school class performance and/or their national testing, many of them both.“Less than half of those students gained admission. So when you have that sort of talent, you have to look at other factors.”The “higher profile” of the applicant pool not only permitted but also forced admissions counselors to consider factors beyond a student’s test scores to create the most “well-rounded” class, Bishop said.“We are using the test scores less,” he said. “If you look at four years ago compared to today, there’s a significant increase in our willingness to look beyond, and the reason being is we’re getting so many high numbers that they’re now so high … to distinguish between this score and that score is not very meaningful.”The expanding applicant pool and its strong qualifications also offers the Office of Undergraduate Admissions a “growing opportunity” to partner with faculty and administrators to recruit a class of students that will serve the University and ultimately the world, Bishop said.“With our selection process, with this elevated pool, we’re able to make those distinctions more directly as we review the applicants,” he said.Bishop said admissions counselors focused on four main goals throughout the process: to increase socioeconomic, cultural, racial and intellectual diversity, to expand outreach to international students, to enhance the quality of the application pool and to foster creative selections by considering an “EQ,” or “emotional quotient.”“The emotional quotient, the potential for leadership and service to others, maintains Notre Dame’s focus on what sort of students will have the most impact in the world if they use their Notre Dame degree properly for impactful values that Notre Dame believes in,” Bishop said. “This desire for Notre Dame to be one of the major forces for good in the world is what we want.”Erin Rice | The Observer Bishop said Notre Dame’s “core mission value” of selecting students who will be impacted by the University and then in turn impact the world makes Notre Dame unique among the nation’s top 20 private institutions.“At other universities, there are a lot of students that believe in those things, but there’s not necessarily considered core to that university experience,” he said. “It’s not a transformational goal of the other universities, whereas here, we’re looking to transform students to be highly energetic, not only towards the intellectual but what impact are they going to have?”Factors admissions counselors might consider beyond test scores include extraordinary talents, dedication to extracurricular activities and motivation to succeed in a particular field or with challenging coursework, Mundy said. He said more than 40 application readers try to project how a student would enhance the Notre Dame community and continue to further the University’s mission after graduation.“I think what the staff’s been able to do is find the students [about] who they say, ‘The way this student is currently living [his or her] life really seems to mesh well with the values that we feel make this place so special,’” he said.Mundy said the staff members in the Office of Undergraduate Admissions look forward to welcoming admitted students to campus this month.“This time of year we literally come off this real grinding selection period or evaluation period, and there’s always just this immediate burst of excitement as you start to meet some of these admitted students,” he said. “These are the students who are going to shape this place for the coming years.“You just meet one or two of these students, and you just feel good again. I’m really excited about this class in so many ways.”last_img read more

Fridays on the Fly: How To Catch Lethargic Winter Trout

first_imgWhere To Go:Tailwaters are an obvious choice because their dams dictate relatively stable water temperatures year-round.Other good options are the numerous delayed-harvest fisheries across the region. Heavy stockings and catch-and-release regulations mean these waters will be full of trout competing for slim winter resources.Wherever you choose to go, make sure it’s close to the vehicle. Take breaks to blast heat in the truck and warm your fingers and core. You’ll fish more efficiently and longer. Proximity to the truck can also become critical if a misstep fills your waders. Nick Carter is the author of “Flyfisher’s Guide to North Carolina & Georgia.” It is available on Amazon.com, and autographed copies are available by emailing the author at [email protected] What To Fish:There are competing theories on fly selection in winter. Midges are pretty much the only bugs happening on most waters. These little specks of life are the wintertime staple on our tailwaters, where mid-day swarms can be fantastic.Logic calls for miniscule flies and long, thin leaders. Even subsurface, tiny nymphs with a little flash make sense when the predominant food source is just a little bigger than microscopic.It’s important to remember that even when the fish are rising, most feeding is subsurface. A good way to get that Zebra Midge down near the bottom with the trout is to fish it in tandem with a big heavy stonefly nymph.Which brings up a second theory on winter fly selection. Fish something big and meaty they can’t pass up.Stoneflies take months or years to mature into flying adults, which makes stonefly nymphs a reliable year-round option. It might not be what the trout are keyed on, but sometimes a size 8 or 10 stone is the protein package fish can’t refuse.By the same token, drifting and swinging a big, bulky Bugger can occasionally turn the biggest fish in the river. Just don’t expect too many bites. With shrunken winter strike zones, you’ll have to hit that bruiser brown right in the nose.center_img It’s cold outside. The iced-over bank eddies squeak and crunch when you step into the shallows. There’s a light dusting of snow on the ground, and only a lunatic would choose to wade into frigid water in pursuit of lethargic trout.But some of us are highly susceptible to cabin fever. And there’s something therapeutic about the quiet of the woods on a winter day.With stream life slowed to a crawl, expectations of catching fish should be tapered. It’s time to slow down and go to work meticulously.Fish instinctively weigh each decision to feed in such circumstances. Is the energy obtained catching a bug or baitfish worth the energy expended?The angler also has decisions to make, decisions that are the difference between a productive day on the water or just a cold walk in a creek.last_img read more